Rossi and Freeman (1993) define evaluation as the systematic practical application of social research procedures for surveying the conceptualization, design, implementation, and utility of ... course of instructions. There ar many another(prenominal) other similar definitions and explanations of what evaluation is in the literature. Our view is that, although separately definition, and in fact, each evaluation is slightly different, there are several different steps that are usually followed in any evaluation. It is these steps which guide the questions organizing this handbook. An overview of the steps of a regular evaluation follows.
Summative evaluations assess weapons platform outcomes or impacts. To determine the race of different factors to outcomes, similar to pliant evaluations, some information employ in summative evaluations is collected early in the aliveness of a program (e.g., baseline data, test scores). Unlike shaping evaluations, however, a portion of the information is collected after the program has been completely implemented and adequate time has passed to expect outcomes to occur. In terms of evaluating educational technology, a summative evaluation ability ask if teacher technology skills improved as a result of a professional development activity, if teachers are employ technology to a greater extent in their instruction, or if technology improved student motivation or performance.
Some advantages of summative evaluations include:
Â· Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â They assess long-term effects.
Â· Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â They provide data on impacts.
Â· Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â They can provide data on change across time.
Evaluators often converse about two different types of evaluations: formative and summative. A formative evaluation is usually conducted in the early stages of a program and addresses questions about implementation and ongoing planning. This type of evaluation typically examines process rather than product. In the case of technology programs, a formative evaluation might ask if equipment was...If you want to disembowel a full essay, order it on our website: Orderessay
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