Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Racial Minorities Descrimination in Bank lending

Although illegal, this practice often benefits in the denial of dollars to members of racial and ethnic minorities, and even to neighborhoods that are predominantly occupied by members of racial and ethnic minorities (Schiller 100). This latter process is known as "redlining." In 1977, the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) became law. The CRA deals with 2 in the specific difficulties of overriding interest within the equal opportunity area--equal entry to housing, and equal access to credit ratings (Canner, Smith, Bowen, Benkovic, Freeland, Johnson, Orndorff, and Schultz 876). The CRA was, in 1977, the newest in a series of federal laws designed to attack the issues of unequal access to credit history that have been confronting some segments from the American population.

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The CRA was related to these other laws, but the act and its provisions have been specially designed to deal from the issues related to mortgage and company lending, to establish guidelines for bankers, and to provide a mechanism for public review and protest (Canner, Smith, Bowen, Benkovic, Freeland, Johnson, Orndorff, and Schultz 876). Public concerns related to equal opportunity in housing and credit ranged during the capability of some groups to get housing and credit score i Another serious charge laid against lenders was that they accumulated deposits during the residents of redlined areas and from members of minority population groups, and then refused to extend credit score to these kinds of residents or minority group members, who were, much more often than not, a single as well as the same. The CRA was designed, in part, to assure that credit would be extended to individuals from whom lending institutions accepted deposits, assuming that such folks had been otherwise eligible for this kind of credit. Babbie, Earl.

The Method Of Social Research, 6th ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1992. By contrast, economist Gary Becker uses the economic theory of discrimination to contend how the fact that African-Americans receive disproportionately a smaller amount bank credit rating that do white People just isn't in reality discrimination. Becker (13-18) contends that businesses can afford to discriminate only if they're in a monopsony situation or if all competitors in their nation also method discrimination. Within the latter context, it is also needed for the competitors to have, essentially, the exact same taste for discrimination; that is, all must be willing to pay the same price to be able to discriminate (Becker 13-18).

The premise upon which the CRA is based was a Congressional finding that banks and thrifts have a continuing and affirmative obligation to support meet the credit rating requirements from the local communities where they're chartered. This finding stemmed inside view that, as society represented by government has granted these institutions special privileges (charters to try and do business, deposit insurance, and access towards Federal Reserve discount window), these institutions have an obligation to serve the public, particularly that segment of the public inside communities where the institutions are chartered.

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Monday, October 29, 2012

Marxist economic system

The first was that an economy was not characterized by static equilibrium (Eagly, 1974). This exact same insight later led Keynes to an understanding that policies based upon classical economic theory would not necessarily extricate the world's industrial economies in the depression from the early 1930s (Hansen, 1953).

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A second major insight brought to economic idea by Marx was that importance and growth was not inextricably associated with agricultural activity (Tucker, 1978). Marx demonstrated that labor created value, and fostered economic growth in activities other than those associated with agriculture. The third major insight brought to economic idea by Marx was his conception of economics as an evolutionary method (Hausman, 1984). As crucial as this insight is, it even now has not been broadly accepted, or, at least, extensively practiced. In some fariness, it ought to be admitted that evolutionary to Marx meant a move from feudalism to capitalism, a transition from capitalism to socialism, and on down the line.

Evolutionary development, however, may be (and usually is) less dramatic. The development of Keynesian economic theory represented an evolutionary movement from classical and neoclassical economics. A major trouble with most economists who became Keynesians, however, was that they tended to view Keynesian economic theory as the end on the line, rather than a step during the evolutionary development of economic thought. Eagly, R. V. (1974). The structure of classical economic theory. London: Oxford University Press. The major deficiency in Marxian economic theory may be the contention that the amount of labor applied from the manufacture of the product determines the significance of that product, and that this sort of a importance determination is each fundamental and immutable.

This theory fails to account for your contribution to importance of other causes of production. Further, this theory is unable to provide a satisfactory explanation in between the significance and the relative cost of the product. Marxian theory is in accordance with a distinction in between the exchange and use value of labor.

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Historical Timeframe of Economic Development

Their premise that during the Middle Ages new markets were opened is true. They produce the normal capitalistic theory that, in order for your capitalistic economy to function, normal conditions must be met. Of main value is some form of ownership of house which can be controlled by individual or collective action. The rights of an organization to exist and of individuals to unique and operate an organization free from excessive interference from political and religious authority have been necessary and were accessible inside Middle Ages (22). Enterprises need to have the capacity for getting solutions and resell them at a profit or loss, of the risk of loss becoming held by the company (22). And, last, enterprises need to be allowed to alter their activities by changing, adding, or deleting every activity on the basis of profitability (22).

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The authors repeatedly refer for the growth of markets as being a driving force behind the increasing specialization of labor. As labor becomes a lot more specialized, a surplus of products develops, which allows for an expansion of trade. Increases in trade promote the growth of markets. Markets set costs and allocate resources based on the value placed on a items by the buyers. Unrestricted markets achieve the distribution of resources in an efficient manner. This can be regular doctrine for capitalistic theory. In the capitalist system, which the authors claim was commencing its development during the Middle Ages, markets have been also responsible for setting the reward structure for enterprises which took risks to bring innovation towards the markets (26). The reward structure which developed tended to reward the people and enterprises which marketed their solutions towards masses, not to the wealthy few (26). This factor was responsible for your enhance in wealth spreading on the majority in the population.

The authors correctly known the result in in the increased distribution of wealth. To some extent, Rosenberg and Birdzell may possibly realize the limitation of their theory with the historic development of capitalism. When comparing early levels of technological development in between countries and their political systems, they acknowledge that, between the Very first and 5th centuries, China had a more efficient civilization than the West (87). They attribute the change in relative strengths of economy among the West and China for the differences in rules of inheritance and towards existence in China of "social and cultural values of Asian 'bureaucratic feudalism' [which] have been simply incompatible with capitalism and modern-day science" (87).

The people of Montaillou had already gained the freedom to own, bequeath and market their nation and possessions (Ladurie 20). The accumulation of wealth by the church was the basis for your anti-wealth sentiment in Montaillou (Ladurie 333). The population saw how the church preached poverty but the priests enriched themselves: "Instead of saving the souls of the dead and sending them to heaven, they gorge themselves at banquets following funerals. . . do you think that their beneficial houses have been produced by the labour of their very own hands?" (Ladurie 333). The peasants were not against getting wealth by a person's individual labour; they were against wealth extracted from their labor and placed inside the hands of others.

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Thursday, October 25, 2012

Exporting of Raw Materials in Third World Countries Examined

In such a scenario, the primary economic advantages accruing on the developing region derive from low level labor wages paid to its citizens during extractive or harvesting operations. Though it is true that an extractive or harvesting industrial ability has been developed within a developing country, this capacity becomes largely worthless as soon as the physical resource is depleted, or after demand for your resource slackens.

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The low level labor wages generally paid to extractive and harvesting workers in developing nations provide only minimal advantages for ones higher proportion from the population of the country. The wages are not high more than enough to create client demand adequate to justify the creating of domestic manufacturing ability to support it. Thus, this demand tends to be satisfied by the importation of manufactured goods from designed countries.

When human resource development accompanies the development of a physical resource, the skills and also the incomes of the much higher proportion from the population with the developing nation concerned also are improved. When domestic processing and manufacturing capacities are created concurrently with physical resource development, the developing nation is provided with (1) more sources of income, and (2) a ways of decreasing its dependency on imported products.

Advantages of countertrade exist for each multinational firms, and for your countries insisting on the use of the procedures and arrangements. Countertrade procedures provide a viable selection strategy to developing nations from the advertising and marketing of their natural physical resources.

Another attempt to form a developing nations physical resource cartel by no means achieved OPEC like successes. Inside the mid 1970s, Jamaica took the lead in an attempt to form a world wide bauxite cartel. Bauxite is really a clay like substance composed of hydrous aluminum oxides, along with other oxides. Throughout the world, it is the main source of aluminum employed in commerce and industry.

The combined benefits of the lack of development capital and of pressing needs for dollars location developing nations at a serious disadvantage inside promotion of their physical resources. The developing nations often believe compelled to accept the role of raw material providers on the formulated countries and towards the multinational companies based in individuals countries.

Partly out of frustration in its much less than successful efforts to improve taxes on a American and Canadian bauxite mining companies, and partly as a ways of gaining higher control more than the country's natural resources, the Jamaican government, in 1976, acquired 50 percent ownership on the operations in the American and Canadian bauxite and alumina mining businesses in Jamaica. This action was popular with the citizens of Jamaica, and, when the world economy entered a recovery phase, bauxite production soared. By 1978, Jamaica was the world's second largest producer of bauxite and alumina.


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Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Three Behaviors of Leadership Success in Modern Organizations

Shin (1998) known the five traits, or characteristics, regarded as to be most critical for leaders in contemporary organizations. These five desirable traits are as follows: (1) respect for an organization's employees; (2) an initiator attitude; (3) tenacity in the pursuit of objectives; (4) an capacity to create networks; and (5) demanding the highest level of competency for organizations, which means both embracing technology and assuring that employees are trained to use technology effectively.

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Shin (1998) also identified five traits that have a tendency to be observed among unsuccessful leaders. These five undesirable traits are as follows: (1) irresolute decision-making; (2) poor treatment of the firm's human resources; (3) an inability to make networks; (4) an inability to respond to changes in a firm's external environment; and (5) contempt for competency, which implies disdaining technological currency and training.

In numerous instances, the desirable and undesirable traits of leaders identified by Shin (1998) are mirror images of 1 another. In other instances, however, a failure to react inside a particular way is viewed being a serious fault, while acting appropriately appears to be viewed much more as an expected behavior than as an outstanding behavior. An inability to respond to changes in a firm's external environment is including case.

To efficiently control alter inside an organizational environment, a leader needs to be able to correctly discern the meanings from the actions by members from the organization, and needs to be in a position to realize the motives underlying this sort of resistance to change. Each in the 3 underlying reasons for resistance to organizational alter ? insecurity, economic, and socio psychological reasons ? is going to be found in all resistance to change; however, the relative strengths of these three underlying causes will almost certainly vary in accordance with both the case and towards the persons involved (Daft, 1997).

In today's world, alter is really a recurring phenomenon for companies and their leaders. Organizational transform is a source of conflict in organizations. Potent leadership within the management of change can either prevent or minimize the impact of such conflicts.


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Tuesday, October 23, 2012

The Real Core of the Classical Economist

From this it need to follow that classical economics doesn't account for your increased efficiency and skill of the labor force, which inevitably increases the importance of what is produced. Even wherever retraining of new labor units obtains, the institution's manage of asystem of labor (and training) allows capital to attain and preserve economies of scale, whether by the retention of powerful management, technology, or the phenomenon of entry#level or trainee#level wage scales. Moreover, the history of management's persistent resistance to any kind of federal government intervention as regards the independent authority of management to establish wage scales and other working conditions of labor suggests that management seeks to manipulate what must be the "free" interplay from the classically based economic system. What this approaches for labor is that, absent external intervention on the part of government, just like that represented by the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) of 1935, management's version of classical economic operations, and not classical economics per se, is what management seeks to establish.

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Further, he wonders that they are not a lot more corrupt than they are, apparently unwilling to allow the natural order of self#regulation in union organizations the same status as the programmatic deregulation he sees as the wave with the future. He was writing in 1984, of course, previous to the newly deregulated airline marketplace had had time to collapse upon itself concentrate into two or three strong carriers. Moreover, if unions are so privileged, why has their range declined, irrespective from the alleged federal government protection of them? A theory on the natural order in the universe of labor and capital needs to be questioned against the palpable simple fact of which element in the universe can really wield meaningful power. Management is far better capitalized than labor, and has a history of using its funds as an instrument of power. This explains the hiring of strikebreakers on a single hand, or of security guards who enforce a lockout over a other. The history of violence within the labor side with the equation is, on a other hand, measured not so significantly by how a lot income is spent to foment a riot as by the use of masses (a collective) of individual laborers to effect a strike or rush the holders of a lockout.

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Monday, October 22, 2012

The Importance of Test Marketing

The results can thus be misunderstood or misapplied if this simple fact is not kept in mind.

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In addition, the truth that a buyer likes the taste of the certain foods as soon as sampling it in a testing case does not mean that the exact same buyer will purchase the product. It is an indication that the buyer don't reject the item outright as it does not taste good, but you will discover other factors which will figure within the choice to purchase or not to buy, such as everything from price to ingredients, caloric content, wellness factors, own preferences, seasons, and the tastes of other family members. A taste test only gives an indication of how appealing a product might be to the taste buds with the consumer, but translating that into consumer behavior involves various steps in which other reasons can intervene to adjust the outcome. This creates predicting buyer behavior hard under any circumstances.

The four p's affecting promoting are product, price, place, and promotion. Each of these factors would be affected by every decision for ones production of generic drugs.

As noted, this division operates on a basis of keeping prices down so that the generic drugs can be sold as cheaply as possible. Because every manufacturer could produce these drugs, because the drugs are no longer under patent protection, keeping the cost low is an crucial competitive strategy. This division maintains its position by underpricing the competition, so any decision


Promotion can also be to be minimal to your exact same reason. A lot of the jobs of advertising has already been done by the original manufacturer, a business that has informed doctors and patients that this is a drug that serves their needs. The new version in the merchandise may perhaps have another name that has to become conveyed, as well as the second important bit of details will be the price. This details is also conveyed to doctors who in turn will tell their patients. Marketing also comes in on the placement in the product or service on the shelf, packaging that attracts the eye, and similar ways to inform the public inside the store.

Promotion as well will differ as to regardless of whether the items are part of an existing line or a brand new line. New products from the existing line are promoted with similar packaging, similar promotions, and related advertising and marketing as well as the existing Lean cuisine line. It would be more expensive to introduce a brand new line and would require a new package strategy, a brand new promotion strategy, and unique promotions to serve the needs of this line and to achieve the intended client market.

Managers should take into account the way the life cycle of a merchandise relates on the marketplace and may be affected by the market. A particular kind of merchandise can be well-known in the market in your time and then begin to lose its allure, and this will affect the life cycle of every product or service of that kind and contribute to their decline. The maturity of such products and solutions is dependent on their health inside the market. Managers must realize these relationships while also seeing how those people relationships may well differ from a single product to another or 1 product or service kind to another. This doesn't make the PLC a very good predictor, but it does mean that the PLC idea can be combined having a variety of other facts from the market to create some estimates from the course in the life cycle.

Placement from the merchandise is some thing that's significant to be able to attract the client and outdo the competition, but using a generic drug.


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Friday, October 19, 2012

How to Apply Total Quality Management?

Buyers lacked the technological reading and writing required to produce knowledgeable choices on which to get, dealing with item failures, and so on. Total well being became progressively dependent on the actual continuous functionality regarding scientific products or services. With higher volume of goods arrived extra merchandise disappointments and much more disappointed consumers. More merchandise disappointments also led to better damage to human safe practices.

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The actual risk for the environment attained dangerous amounts. With each other these impacts stimulated a few powerful side effects. Economic theory emerged throughout unprecedented pressure. Substantial brand-completely innovative legislation as well as federal authorities rules come about relative to consumer safety, product basic protection, environmental surroundings, and other matters. Legislation legal process of law eroded the original defenses regarding suppliers to a point getting close to rigid item legal responsibility. Subsequent The second world war, japan became the planet quality frontrunners simply by simply focusing on level of superior improvement as well as deficiency prevention as opposed to on examination .

Japanese items benefited American consumers yet damaged other parts of the economy. Replies simply by simply U . s . businesses were for many many years inadequate, largely as a result of insufficient top supervisors' management as well as in order to be able for you to help top supervisors' ignorance associated with the way to control quality. TQM employs elements of individual habits theory, statistical-process control, as well as classical industrial management to create a procedure for helping the quality regarding products and services made by a company. Improving high top good excellent has changed into a main goal associated with U.S. businesses in the past several years. While the use of proportion or other mathematical characters specifications isn't appropriate for the actual TQM tradition, TQM calls for standardisation.

The actual standardization basic rule simply states that at any point over time, the easiest way for any procedure to work ought to be identified, and everyone involved in the act should be while with all the ultimate way. The concept of quality guarantee in health care continues to develop and is rapidly growing. This particular growth and development is the results of a current obsession with the level of superior of treatment by the private and public sectors. "For your future," in accordance with Jeffer , "the watch words of medicine are usually quality, documentation, and also accountability".

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Thursday, October 18, 2012

BP's Marketing Strategy in Changing Business Environment

Multinational corporations operating in complex and distinct political, economic, social and cultural environments need to improve, transform and develop their promotion strategies on a normal basis (Bamberg, 2009:46). Changing environmental factors create new problems for their operating, which often need considerable and serious changes in strategic decision-making and positioning of companies. Inflexible and rigid companies will cease to become competitive during the market every time changes occur (Fight, 2006:85). The aim in the provide report is to identify the past and supply changes in advertising strategy of British Petroleum, which have occurred under the pressure of environmental factors. It is evaluated whether these changes had been necessary, and future strategic alternatives for British Petroleum are recommended.

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2. Background


British Petroleum (BP) is often a multi-national gas and oil business located during the United Kingdom. Taking into consideration the size of revenues, BP proves to become the third largest energy business inside the world. It's reported that its revenue was equal to as much as $308 billion in 2010 (BP, 2010:18). Working from the field on the gas and oil industry, the corporation carries out a wide range of operations, namely exploration, refining, production, trading, power generation, renewable energy production, etc. BP is presented in more than 80 countries all more than the world and employs over 80,000 workers. The business was founded in 1909 as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, but only in 1954, it was named the British Petroleum Company. 1998 was marked by the merger with Amoco (BP, 2011:1). Operating in turbulent and dynamic industrial sector, BP has always had to adequately react to the environmental changes and transform their advertising and marketing strategy (Bamberg, 2009:49).

3. BP in Dynamic and Changing Environment


Taking into account that this report analyses strategic positioning of BP as a response to environmental changes and influences, the external environment with the business needs to be carefully scanned. It is crucial to note that not just contemporary external influences should be investigated, but also the environmental causes that utilized to influence BP some time ago. This will allow for observing changes from a historical perspective. In this sense, the PESTEL framework seems being a incredibly fascinating tool. It's argued that "the PESTEL framework helps to identify the relative value of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal influences, and can be utilized to identify the key long-term drivers of change" (Fight, 2006:44).


It may be critically said that "recent marketplace events have provided a sharp reminder with the central role of energy for our near-term security; insecurity arises from a amount of issues, such as geopolitical instability, natural disasters, terrorism and even poor regulatory design" (ORCD, 2003:421). Indeed, geopolitical instability proves to be a strong political factor, which can influence volatility inside the energy markets. It is reported how the globe is heavily dependent on Middle East simply because this nation has more than 60% with the world's oil reserves (Thomas White Global Investing, 2010:1). The key oil making nations are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Venezuela, Russia and Libya. Oil reserves of these nations are demonstrated in the graph below. It is valid to argue that numerous instability 'symptoms' had been witnessed in these nations recently, for instance military conflicts, authoritarian political regimes, corruption, etc. For instance, Venezuela tends to use its oil revenues to finance governmental programmes and ideology (Thomas White Global Investing, 2010:1).


As it can be witnessed during the histogram, Saudi Arabia has the largest oil reserves inside the world, namely 262.2 billion barrels. Canada, Iran and Iraq have 179.2 billion, 136.3 billion and 115 billion barrels respectively (Thomas White Global Investing, 2010:1).


In response towards the mentioned political influences, BP's strategy has been changed right here way. Generally, you possibly can observe a couple of main tendencies. First, British Petroleum attempts to hedge political risks inside oil producing nations by way of partnership and deals on the governments. For instance, BP signed a contract of the Russian state-run oil business Rosneft in 2009 (Hernandez, 2011:1). Second, the company evacuated its personnel from northern Africa because of growing political instability in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. Simultaneously, BP develops its cooperation with emerging economies in Asia, that are more politically stable, namely India (Hernandez, 2011:1). These changes were necessary to be able to avoid political risks inside countries, which prove being the leading producers of oil.


Geopolitical instability within the globe and political tensions in these countries is also viewed as critical reasons that have led to the fluctuations in oil prices, which could be illustrated by the following graph.


As it can be grasped inside the graph, crude oil price reached its maximum in 2008 and constituted as much as $91.48 per barrel (IBP Oil, 2011:1). The period from 2002 to 2008 was marked by the gradual rise in crude oil prices. In 2009, the indicator was equal to $53.56, and oil prices began growing again (IBP Oil, 2011:1). It may be argued that fluctuations in crude oil costs are also the result of economic influences. It is obvious from the graph that crude oil prices skyrocketed simultaneously on the coming of the global financial crisis. One more enhance in oil costs occurred during the prolonged recession, from the long-term from the financial crisis (Bamberg, 2009:184; IBP Oil, 2011:1).

In accordance with Brigham and Ehrhardt (2010:901), the principal factors of fluctuations in crude oil costs are demand and supply forces, investment demand and monetary inflation. The us Dollar inflation is also graphically presented here way.


As it's observed, inflation reached its maximum in 2008 once the indicator was equal to 3.85% (Inflation Data, 2011:1). It has already been stated how the rapid growth of crude oil priced took place the exact same year. As argued by Brigham and Ehrhardt (2010:901), you may establish cause-effect relations among high inflation and also the growth of oil prices. Indeed, these environmental factors had economic influence on British Petroleum. The excessive dependence on non-renewable energy carriers and fluctuations in crude oil prices have contributed to the popularity of renewable energy, namely wind, solar and geothermal (Fight, 2006:93). The issue is how the reserves of renewable energy aren't limited.


In response to these economic influences, BP reconsidered its organization strategy the following way. It's reported that the business started making solar panels right after the acquisitions of Lucas Energy Systems (1980) and Amoco (1998). At the provide moment, the company proves to be the largest manufacturer of solar panels inside the world. BP has launched a couple of main kinds of solar energy products, namely products for person buyers and solutions for organisations. For instance, the business is planning to run a brand new solar energy project aimed at energy provide for Wal-Mart stores (BP, 2011:1). Furthermore, it is reported that BP invested more than $6 billion in wind and biofuel energy projects during the period from 2005 to 2010 (BP, 2010:61). These changes were necessary mainly because the PB attempted to attract clients by cheaper and 'green' energy. The volumes of 'green' energy production by BP is also presented by the following graph.


It is illustrated by the histogram that BP produced as much as 774 megawatts in 2010. The total volume of wind energy created by the company is more than the volume of solar energy (BP, 2010:63). However, the company tends to produce more solar energy each following year. If 162 megawatts have been created in 2008, the indicator increased towards the level of 325 megawatts in 2010 (BP, 2010:63).


Global energy consumption patterns might be viewed as an critical social influence on BP. The following histogram illustrates the changes in energy consumption during the last a couple of decades. It really is seen how the world's population consumed as much as 8,131 million tons in oil equivalent in 1990. However, the indicator constituted 11,808 million tons in 2010 (BP, 2011:1).


However, it should be taken into consideration that energy just isn't consumed equally by several regions with the globe (BP, 2011:1). The following graph illustrates energy consumption patterns by economic zones, unions and countries. As it can be understood, this social influence could bring about changes in marketing strategy of BP.


It is reported that almost 20% with the world energy is consumed in the US market. Being additional specific, the indicator was equal to 89,021 kWh/hab in 1990 and decreased to the level of 87,216 kWh/hab in 2008 (BP, 2011:1). It can be witnessed how the EU nations consume half the quantity of energy applied inside the US; it constitutes 40,812 kWh/hab. It's interesting to note that the EU consumption patterns had grown by 2008. Furthermore, it must be emphasised that such regions as Middle East and China have experienced enormous growth of energy consumption recently (BP, 2011:1).


In response to these socials changes, BP has reconsidered and changed its strategy the following way. The company employed to operate from the US industry quite actively and have large manufacturing facilities in this region during the 1990s. It is understandable how the country eating nearly 20% from the world energy will be of strategic interest for British Petroleum (Bamberg, 2009:142). Nevertheless, the company attempted to move significant part of its manufacturing facilities inside the US to China during the 2000s. For instance, BP's factories in Frederick, Maryland had been closed in 2000 (Wenying, 2004:100). Moving production facilities to China continued regardless of the reality how the Chinese government issued several protectionist laws, which need than no less than 85% of input materials need to be manufactured in China (Bamberg, 2009:83). These changes have been necessary due to the fact energy consumption patterns during the US marketplace had reduced by 2008.


It can be argued that technological progress is associated from the growth of energy consumption patterns by this sort of sectors as marketplace and transport. Here graph is also presented to illustrate this relationship.

All the four sectors have experienced growth in energy consumption recently. It is reported that in 2008, industry and transport used 27,273 TWh and 26,742 TWh respectively (BP, 2011). It can be stated by the reality that new technologies are much more energy consuming. Furthermore, rapid growth of the world's population techniques that much more and more oil needs to be spent on manufacturing of industrial solutions and transportation (Bamberg, 2009:42). For example, there were about 400 million motor cars in 2000; however, the total quantity of vehicles constitutes more than 750 million these days (Heitmann, 2009:167).


These technological changes have led on the right after reconsiderations and amendments in BP's strategy. First, the company started popularising efficient use of energy and invested in energy efficiency of industrial enterprises and engines for motor vehicles (BP, 2010:53). Second, BP introduces new technologies in their own production process. It was officially said by the Group Chief Executive that "the answer for the difficulties caused by some technology is a lot more and much better technology - to reduce the environmental impact of exploration, to reduce the carbon content from the fuels we use, to give individuals everywhere far better choices" (BP, 2001:1). To become a lot more specific, BP has rationalised transportation of oil and its items and has reduced the content of carbon in its fuel (Bamberg, 2009:142).


Being an energy company, BP is subjected to manifold environmental influences. It is possible to differentiate in between environmental causes that refer towards the global ecological changes and environmental influences provoked by the company itself. The latter are many chemical leaks, oil spills and dumping of hazardous substances. For instance, BP was blamed for dumping of chemical wasted in Alaska during the period from 1993 to 1995 (Roach, 2006:1). Prudhoe Bay oil spill, which occurred in August 2006, was the result of pipeline corrosion. More than 5,000 barrels of crude oil leaked and caused environmental damage for the sea life. Another trouble was registered in Texas City in 2010 after there was a chemical leak of hazardous things to the atmosphere (Aulds, 2010:1).


Regardless in the fact that BP runs a excellent quantity of 'green' practices and corporate social responsibilities (investment in renewable energy projects, restoration with the environment after oil accidents, funding of ecological projects and initiatives, etc.), the company was given the Greenwash Award in 2009 (Green Peace, 2010:24). The firm tends to manipulate the public paying significant attention to its CSR activities. It is argued that BP spends on 'green' practices less than it is proclaimed in official statements on the company (Green Peace, 2010:26). It really is summarised that BP attempted to produce sure public image by its 'green' practices in response to the stated environmental influences. However, these attempts cannot be classified as successful. These changes in strategy cannot be classified like a necessity. The business could had been far more open and trustworthy with the public, that can have made more positive public image.


Finally, it may be said that BP has already had a series of legal arguments from the governments and non-governmental organisations. It's reported that "yet already BP's actions are facing unprecedented scrutiny, thanks to a years-long history of legal and ethical violations that critics, judges and members of Congress say shows how the London-based company includes a penchant for putting profits previous to just about everything else" (Mauer and Tinsley, 2010:1). In response to these legal influences, the business has turn into more careful and prudent (Aulds, 2010:1).

4. Strategic Position of BP


Prior on the identification in the generic strategy of BP, it's necessary to conduct a stakeholder analysis and detect the recent changes in BP's attitude on the a variety of interest groups. The main stakeholders of the business are the government, the press, suppliers, ecological organisations, customers, alliance partners, shareholders, the public and employees (BP, 2010:34). The positioning of these interest groups inside stakeholder matrix can also be presented here way.


It could be observed that role in the governments has changed under the influence of political influences and geopolitical instability. The governments of oil creating countries and suppliers seem being really strong (BP, 2010:74). At the offer moment, BP has to generate strong long-term relationships with governments to be able to avoid political risks, limitations and possible restrictions (Thomas White Global Investing, 2010:1). It is argued that ecological organisations and buyers are much less powerful, but they have a tendency to demonstrate greater interest towards company. Ecological organisations and the public are worried about dangerous final results from the company's operations. Consumers are interested in BP because the energy consumption patterns are growing and there is always demand for oil (Bamberg, 2009:34). The business has numerous groups of customers, namely car owners using program stations (Aral, ARCO, BP Connect, BP Express and BP2go), users of convenience stores, users of solar panels, users of motor oils and derived products, the transport marketplace as well as the aerospace market (BP, 2010:74).

other significant alter that has happened recently is that employees' power has increased. This improve can also be stated by numerous accidents, disasters and safety problems, which have occurred at British Petroleum. For instance, it is stated by america Department of Labour (2011:1) that the explosion during the isomerisation unit from the BP refinery in Texas City led for the death of 15 workers and injury of 170 employees. Similar scandals attract the public attention and interest and stimulate better maintenance of safety standards and norms. It must be noted that the power in the press and the public has elevated too (Green Peace, 2010:21).


Discussing generic techniques in the company, it's also possible to identify changes. At the early stages of its development, BP was right after the cost leadership strategy (Bamberg, 2009:132). Indeed, the business made significant efforts to remain the leader in developing costs. Nevertheless, it is argued by Company & Leadership (2011:1) how the firm's price reduction practices had been the primary reason for oil spills and leaks. Cost cutting measures prevented the business from timely and regular repairs and maintenance in the infrastructure (Business & Leadership, 2011:1). BP has transformed the price leadership strategy to the differentiation strategy by the produce moment. It is argued that "the business has endeavoured to redefine its industry space by laying claim to activities beyond oil and gas for example option energy plus a lower carbon future" (Bright, 2011:4).


As it may be seen, the turbulent and changing external environment has forced BP to undertake a series of new decisions, which had been different from people undertaken during the past. These changes inside corporate advertising and marketing strategy is also evaluated like a regular reaction to external political, economic, social and technological influences. As being a result, you may observe the alter in stakeholders' power and interest for the company. Furthermore, BP's generic strategy has evolved from price leadership into differentiation (Business & Leadership, 2011:1; Bright, 2011:4).

5. Future Strategic Options


The discussion of future challenges for BP will reveal that future energy consumption patterns will continue growing. The forecast of future changes might be presented right here way.


The total volume of energy consumed by the globe will have constituted as much as 16,432 million tons in oil equivalent by 2030 (BP, 2011:1). One more essential challenge that must be taken into account is feasible growth and fluctuations of oil prices. The company need to avoid accidents, disasters and safety problems, which prove to be serious challenges to British Petroleum. Finally growing reputation and demand for renewable energy are each opportunity and challenge for the firm (Aulds, 2010:4).


Relying on the previously recognized environmental influences and pressures, it can be suggested that British Petroleum need to follow the diversification strategy as a future option. Based on Ansoff matrix, diversification could be the strategy, which means entering new markets with new products and solutions (Meldrum and McDonald, 2007:142).


This option of the future strategic selection can be mentioned by numerous reasons. First, growing geopolitical instability and political risks and oil producing countries have forced BP to entering new markets, which are characterised by substantial potential. Second, the company can continue running and developing renewable energy projects, which have become extremely well-liked (Hernandez, 2011:1). Within the problems of growing demand for energy, growing consumption patterns and increasing crude oil prices, the business ought to be additional active from the field of option energy.


A modified version of strategic alternatives was out there by Turner (2005:340).


As it's grasped in the improved framework, BP must follow the offensive strategy in future. It's implied that new services must be delivered to far more politically stable and balanced markets (Turner, 2005:340). It is expected that this selection on the future strategy is going to be consistent with modern day changes and tendencies within the industry, namely growing demand for renewable energy, unstable crude oil prices, ecological awareness and energy efficiency (Bamberg, 2009:153).

6. Conclusion and Recommendations


It may be concluded how the principal strategic changes undertaken by British Petroleum in response for the turbulent and dynamic environment are contracts on the governments to avoid political risks, moving to additional stable nations just like India from the northern Africa, acquisition on the solar panel manufacturers, investment in wind and solar projects, moving manufacturing facilities to China, investment in energy efficiency, reduction of carbon content in fuels, participation in 'green' activities an 'greenwashing'. The business had to alter its generic strategy from price leadership to differentiation because price reducing practices had led to oil spills and leaks. It can be summarised that the known changes were necessary. Nevertheless, the business could were far more honest and open in its CSR projects.


It is suggested that BP must use the diversification strategy as being a future strategic option so that you can continue responding towards environmental challenges. The business need to diversify its product or service number associated with the production of solar and wind energy for individual and corporate customers. It's expected that these solutions are going to be popular inside the emerging markets including India and China exactly where incomes aren't high, but energy consumption patterns are growing really fast. Furthermore, it's suggested that the company should improve expenditures on infrastructure maintenance and employee safety. Together with alternative energy production, this will positively influence corporate popularity following the recent safety scandals and 'greenwashing'. Finally, it is advised that BP need to continue popularising efficient use of energy by individual shoppers and industrial enterprises.

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Tuesday, October 16, 2012

A Competition in the Airline Industry

The assessment of competitive forces in relation to the passenger airline industry in the United States is as follows:

Threat of New Entrants (Barriers to Entry): The barriers to access to the passenger airline industry in the United States are fairly high. The primary reason is the capital-intensive characteristic of the industry. Southwest Airlines 30 years ago and Jet Blue a few years ago, however, demonstrated that successful entry into the market is possible. The modern-day unstable state of the passenger airlines marketplace is a double-edged sword with respect to the threat of new entrants. Over a 1 hand, the dreadful performance of the full-service airlines offers opportunities for new, efficient carriers. On a other hand, however, the threats hanging over the industry act to deter the capital investment required to enter the industry.

Bargaining Power of Buyers: The bargaining power of shoppers in the passenger airline market in the United States is relatively strong. Competition does exist in the market in larger market areas. Public concerns more than terrorist threats to air travel safety and concerns more than to cost of air travel lead to price-shopping. This case confers some degree of power on buyers in markets exactly where meaningful competition exists (primarily major metropolitan areas).

Increasing gap among rich and poor (reduces market size)

Experienced, effective, & dedicated management

The SWOT analysis for Southwest Airlines assesses the company's position in relation to industry threats and opportunities. A part of the assessment considers the strengths and weaknesses of the business that affect its ability to respond to opportunities and threats.

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Monday, October 15, 2012

Blood Memory by Martha Graham

Freshly washed, white clothing would be easily blackened by a trip outdoors. Graham's memory from the city was that it often seemed dark, even in daylight.

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In spite in the bleak cultural and physical environment wherever she spent her childhood, Graham always experienced good delight and fascination. As soon as she was nonetheless a toddler, her parents took her towards the circus. Slipping away from her parents, she crawled over to 1 with the elephants. The creature and also the youngster looked into each other's eyes, filling Graham with an inspired feeling of mysterious and intimate contact with some thing alive but not human. The experience was very easily interrupted by her panicked father but it awakened Graham's lifelong fascination with animals. She would continue to draw inspiration from their specific sense of presence and would always spend hours studying the grace with which they moved.

When Graham was 14, her household moved to Santa Barbara, California to escape the cold winters and also the perpetual cloud of soot that aggravated her sister's athsma. Santa Barbara opened up a world of sunlight, flowers, sea breezes as well as the exotic Asian and Latino culture of their neighbors. For Graham it became a time of light and freedom and curiosity. She was thrilled and intoxicated by it.

In 1911, she spotted a poster promoting a dance concert to be given by Ruth St. Denis. The poster, which featured a picture of the dancer dressed in an exotic Asian costume, cap


tured Graham's imagination. She begged her father to take in her to determine the beautiful woman. It would be Graham's first dance concert.

Graham was unprepared for ones impression the dancer's performance would leave on her. St. Denis drew inspiration and material within the spiritual and esthetic traditions of Egypt and India. In 1 of her famous dances, she would evoke the presence on the Hindu goddess Radha. For Graham, St. Denis was a goddess figure. She knew instantly that she was going being a dancer.

Graham was often a headstrong woman. Throughout her life she maintained that irrepressible individualism that may be one on the crucial personality traits typically observed among great artists. She as soon as mentioned that "I would rather have an audience like me than dislike me, but I'd rather they disliked than be apathetic, simply because that is the kiss of death" (Graham, 1991, p. 114). Her innate tenacity always served her well, however. The very first of a series of six concerts she gave in Florence, Italy, was not heading well. The audience, expecting a much more classical style of dance, was getting unruly. Their shouts of disapproval had been unrelenting. Graham feared they may perhaps start throwing things. Daring to confront a potentially hostile house, Graham turned sharply to face the audience having a raised hand. The audience stopped. She knew she had them. The following time the audience misbehaved, she repeated the gesture and got the exact same response. The third time they became unruly, Graham brought the curtains down and instructed all the dancers on stage to preserve their eyes on the floor, stand perfectly still and don't bow for the audience. Once the curtain rose for ones conventional bow, the dancers did as Graham said. A gasp came during the audience, and then thunderous applause as the curtains went down. This was repeated numerous times until the audience became quiet. Graham then walked to the front from the stage, turned her back over a audience and bowed to her dance.

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Friday, October 12, 2012

Standing Man A Creation of Sumerian Artists

Sumerians would pray to this god for rain, fertile grounds, and abundant harvests. As a single art historian maintains, in this era "?all freestanding art was public art," which allowed Sumerians to freely provide tributes or prayers towards the "Standing Man," (Physical, 2005, p. 3).

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There are several values and beliefs reflected from the "Standing Man" sculpture. Between these is the principal representation on the Sumerians themselves. As one art historian suggests, this sculpture represents "?Sumerian man, clearly representing the structural sort of these ancient features?[with]?its big and widely spaced features set on a heavy round skill," (Sumerian, 2005, p. 2).

The "Standing Man," therefore, is not only a representation of deity it is a representation of man within the image with the gods. We can see this within the reverent pose with the "Standing Man," coupled in the prayed-like clasp of his hands in front of his stomach. He is groomed will, although his hair and beard are long and thick. He is dressed in what seems to be some sort of ceremonial or religious garb.

Woolley, L. (1961). The Art of the Middle East, Such as Persia, Mesopotamia and Palestine. New York: Crown Publishers. Viewed on Sep 1, 2005: Texts/Woolley/3b.htm, 1-7.

In conclusion, we can see that "Standing Man" tells us a lot as an artifact about Ancient Sumerian culture, religion, values and lifestyle practices. Seemingly easy on very first viewing, the "Standing Man" is loaded with culturally relevant messages with the folks responsible for his creation.

When judging the jobs from the Sumerian sculptures, we need to keep in mind the function from the statue and also the materials from which it was crafted. The "Standing Man" is composed of white gypsum and features insets of black limestone and white alabaster, (Riebold Benton, & DiYanni, 2005).

However, it's the function of the "Standing Man" that may be most expressed in the use of these materials. In Ancient Sumerian culture, statues of humans had been developed primarily being displayed in tem

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Wednesday, October 3, 2012

American Studies

“The Intriguing Narrative” may be the autobiography of Olaudah Equiano who was the famous African Writer in the 18th century. Actually, the paper contains not merely biographical sketches about famous person, but also desire to put an end to slavery. In my opinion, the primary thesis of the paper is that even former slave is able to become a writer and to supply readers past experiences and difficulties of getting African slave. “The Interesting Narrative” is regarded the work of historical value as it sheds light on childhood of poor African boy, his destiny after enslaved, and, finally, desired freedom. This literary work ensures strong impression whenever you read about individual emotions and feelings of being free. This work assisted in ending slavery in Europe and America.
The subject from the paper is absolutely the life of Olaudah Equiano, his literary works, and, surely, the difficulty of slavery in Europe and America. Olaudah was born in Nigeria in about 1745. However, in childhood he was kidnapped and shipped Barbados. As a result, he was bought and became a slave in Virginia plantation. Then he was purchased by naval officer and got new name – Gustavus Vassa. That played crucial role in his future life as during traveling Equiano learnt to read and tow rite. Moreover, he participated in sea battles during the Seven Year’s War. Nevertheless, black persons were people with the second type in individuals time and they have been subjected to social and political inequality.
Desire to improve life of African he tries the power of writing to improve political situation. For example, he published abolitionist essays and letters, even though the most critical contribution in his life was “The Intriguing Narrative”. In his book he highlighted the terrible life of African slave and slave trade stressing that all persons need to be equal. Debates whether slavery is legal have been initiated in 1792. His narrative is an work of self-invention. Equiano showed himself as a individual who managed to survive slavery and who initiated ending of slave trade.
The poem “On the Death from the Rev. George Whitefield, 1770” was written by Phillis Wheatley and this poem created him well-liked international-wide. She is known for her Christian verses. Wheatley and Equiano have similar destinies as she was also kidnapped inside childhood and was sold. She was raised in pious Christian environment, and she experiences only token slavery. The principal factor of her poems have been produced liberty and men and women equality, in addition to she promoted Christian values and beliefs.
Wheatley’s poems belonged to neoclassic tradition of her days, although white population didn’t accept the poetry of African woman as Africans have been treated as the second kind people. Moreover, Phillis experienced racial discrimination after publishing her poems. For example, she was refused to acquire a credit simply because she was a black poet. In all of her poems she identified herself as African poems and she tried to outline her cultural heritage and roots, and that was the main subject of her literary works. Nevertheless, she belonged also to American culture which was also reflected in her poems. Actually, she was dual provincial as she started to believe of herself as African-American.
Her famous poem “On the Death on the Rev. George Whitefield, 1770” describes the death of the famous English Evangelist who visited The us with prayers. Whitefield wanted to establish orphan in Georgia, and to rationalize slave labor. The poem stresses that his death is often a great loss of English individuals as they would in no way listen to his prayers: “We hear no more the music of thy tongue”. The poem is quite impressive and touching because it transmits author’s emotions about these kinds of loss. Whitefield managed to inflame people’s hearts with hope and desire for much better future and destiny. The poem shows that Whitefield leaves the earth to see the better life at the heaven: “He leaves the Earth for heaven’s unmeasur’d height/ And world unknown receive him from our sight/ There Whitefield’s with rapid course his way/ And sails to Zion through vast seas of day…” In her poems Phillis Wheatley tried to show the smoothes and roughs of lives of African-Americans.
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