Monday, March 4, 2013

The Use of Male Circumcision to Prevent Hiv Infection

A story by Doctors Opposing Circumcision

Introduction. There drop been a number of exaggerated claims made for the alleged skill of male circumcision in preventing female-to-male infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (human immunodeficiency virus) This statement examines those claims and puts them in proper perspective.

History. The hypothesis that male circumcision may be protective against HIV infection was invented and developed in northeast America. According to Professor Valiere Alcena, MD, he originated the theory that removing the foreskin gage prevent HIV infection in an article1 in stately 1986.2 The late Aaron J. Fink, MD, a noted North American advise of male circumcision, then promoted Alcenas theory in letters to checkup journals.3-5 North American Gerald N. Weiss, MD, who operates a website to promote circumcision, and others contri besidesed to the development of the theory through a paper, which was published in Israel (1993), identifying the prepuce as a possible entry point for HIV.6 North American circumcision enthusiasts have further promoted male circumcision with opinion pieces in medical journals.7,8 Stephen Moses, Daniel T. Halperin, and Robert C. Bailey are other well known North American promoters of male circumcision.

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Numerous observational studies were carried out in Africa, but the evidence-based Cochrane Review (2003) found insufficient evidence to advocate a circumcision intervention to prevent HIV infection.10

Randomized controlled trials. After the disappointment of observational studies to show a clear protective effect, circumcision advocates obtained backing from the United States National Institutes of Health to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Africa. Three RCTs to study the value of male circumcision in trim down HIV infection have been conducted in Africa since the publication of the Cochrane Review. The studies were mean to find out if circumcision is an effective intervention to prevent female-to-male HIV infection. A...If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: Orderessay

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